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Carbonic Acid Gas __HOT__


In aqueous solution carbonic acid behaves as a dibasic acid. The Bjerrum plot shows typical equilibrium concentrations, in solution, in seawater, of carbon dioxide and the various species derived from it, as a function of pH.[8][9] The acidification of natural waters is caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is caused by the burning of increasing amounts of coal and hydrocarbons.[10][11]




carbonic acid gas



Expected change refers to predicted effect of continued ocean acidification.[12] It has been estimated that the increase in dissolved carbon dioxide has caused the ocean's average surface pH to decrease by about 0.1 from pre-industrial levels.


Strictly speaking the term "carbonic acid" refers to the chemical compound with the formula H 2 CO 3 \displaystyle \ce H2CO3 , however, for historical reasons, dissolved carbon dioxide in extracellular fluid is often referred to as "carbonic acid" in biochemistry literature.


A comprehensive metadynamics study of the energetics, stability, conformational changes, and mechanism of dissociation of gas phase carbonic acid, H2CO3, yields significant new insight into these reactions. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and conformer energies calculated using the density functional theory are in good agreement with the previous theoretical predictions. At 315 K, the cis-cis conformer has a very short life time and transforms easily to the cis-trans conformer through a change in the O=C-O-H dihedral angle. The energy difference between the trans-trans and cis-trans conformers is very small (approximately 1 kcal/mol), but the trans-trans conformer is resistant to dissociation to carbon dioxide and water. The cis-trans conformer has a relatively short path for one of its hydroxyl groups to accept the proton from the other end of the molecule, resulting in a lower activation barrier for dissociation. Comparison of the free and potential energies of dissociation shows that the entropic contribution to the dissociation energy is less than 10%. The potential energy barrier for dissociation of H2CO3 to CO2 and H2O from the metadynamics calculations is 5-6 kcal/mol lower than in previous 0 K studies, possibly due to a combination of a finite temperature and more efficient sampling of the energy landscape in the metadynamics calculations. Gas phase carbonic acid dissociation is triggered by the dehydroxylation of one of the hydroxyl groups, which reorients as it approaches the proton on the other end of the molecule, thus facilitating a favorable H-O-H angle for the formation of a product H2O molecule. The major atomic reorganization of the other part of the molecule is a gradual straightening of the O=C=O bond. The metadynamics results provide a basis for future simulation of the more challenging carbonic acid-water system.


Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms. This can include rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic.


Acid rain results when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents. The SO2 and NOX react with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids. These then mix with water and other materials before falling to the ground.


While a small portion of the SO2 and NOX that cause acid rain is from natural sources such as volcanoes, most of it comes from the burning of fossil fuels. The major sources of SO2 and NOX in the atmosphere are:


Acidic particles and gases can also deposit from the atmosphere in the absence of moisture as dry deposition. The acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (water bodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react during atmospheric transport to form larger particles that can be harmful to human health. When the accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain, this acidic water flows over and through the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish.


The amount of acidity in the atmosphere that deposits to earth through dry deposition depends on the amount of rainfall an area receives. For example, in desert areas the ratio of dry to wet deposition is higher than an area that receives several inches of rain each year.


When acid deposition is washed into lakes and streams, it can cause some to turn acidic. The Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) Network measures and monitors surface water chemistry at over 280 sites to provide valuable information on aquatic ecosystem health and how water bodies respond to changes in acid-causing emissions and acid deposition.


take 100ml of water, add 0.2 of methyl orange indicator solution, mix well, take 50 M l, put a and B in two colorimetric tubes, put in B tube, add hydrochloric acid titration solution (0,01mi/L) 1.0, shake well; In the tube, after the product is 1000ml (speed of 4000ml per hour), the red color should not be deeper than the tube B.


Yes. The Oxford English Dictionary gives instances of the term "Carbonic acid" meaning CO$_2$ as old as about 1800. By 1900, the term "carbonic acid gas" was in common use for CO$_2$ (my father called it that, 1950-2000, for instance). More recently it turns out that there is a gaseous phase of H$_2$CO$_3$, so "carbonic acid gas" has become an ambiguous term.


"Pumping, or otherwise drawing by artificial appliance, from any well made by boring or drilling into the rock, that class of mineral waters holding in solution natural mineral salts and an excess of carbonic acid gas, or pumping, or by any artificial contrivance whatsoever in any manner producing an unnatural flow of carbonic acid gas issuing from or contained in any well made by boring or drilling into the rock, for the purpose of extracting,


In addition to what properly may be passed without special mention, the bill alleges that the gas company owns 21 acres of lands in Saratoga Springs, New York, which contain mineral waters of the class specified in the statute; that these waters are percolating waters, not naturally flowing to or upon the surface, and can be reached and lifted to the surface only by means of pumps or other artificial appliances; that the gas company is engaged in collecting natural carbonic acid gas from these waters, and in compressing and selling the gas as a separate commodity; that this business has come to be both large and lucrative, and, as a necessary incident to its successful prosecution, the gas company has sunk upon its land wells of great depth, made by boring or drilling into the underlying rock, and has fitted these wells with tubing, seals, and pumps, whereby it lifts the waters and the gas contained therein to the surface; that these pumps do not exercise any force of compulsion upon waters in or under adjoining lands, but lift to the surface only such waters as flow by reason of the laws of nature into the wells; that, when the waters are lifted to the surface, the excess of carbonic acid gas therein naturally escapes and is caught and compressed preparatory to its sale, none thereof being wasted, and no process being employed to increase the natural separation of the excess of gas from the waters; and that many other landowners in Saratoga Springs have like wells, which are operated in a like way, with a like purpose.


John Tyndall was a man of science—draftsman, surveyor, physicsprofessor, mathematician, geologist, atmospheric scientist, publiclecturer, and mountaineer. Throughout the course of his Irish and later,English life, he was able to express his thoughts in a manner none hadseen or heard before. His ability to paint mental pictures for hisaudience enabled him to disseminate a popular knowledge of physicalscience that had not previously existed. Tyndall's original research onthe radiative properties of gases as well as his work with other topscientists of his era opened up new fields of science and laid thegroundwork for future scientific enterprises.In January 1859, Tyndall began studying the radiative properties ofvarious gases. Part of his experimentation included the construction ofthe first ratio spectrophotometer, which he used to measure theabsorptive powers of gases such as water vapor, "carbonic acid" (nowknown as carbon dioxide), ozone, and hydrocarbons. Among his mostimportant discoveries were the vast differences in the abilities of"perfectly colorless and invisible gases and vapors" to absorb andtransmit radiant heat. He noted that oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen arealmost transparent to radiant heat while other gases are quite opaque.Tyndall's experiments also showed that molecules of water vapor,carbon dioxide, and ozone are the best absorbers of heat radiation, andthat even in small quantities, these gases absorb much more stronglythan the atmosphere itself. He concluded that among the constituents ofthe atmosphere, water vapor is the strongest absorber of radiant heatand is therefore the most important gas controlling Earth's surfacetemperature. He said, without water vapor, the Earth's surface would be"held fast in the iron grip of frost." He later speculated on howfluctuations in water vapor and carbon dioxide could be related toclimate change.The above graphs show the percentage of radiation that gases found in the Earth's atmosphere absorb. Methane (CH4,) carbon dioxide (CO2,) andwater vapor (H2O,) absorb strongly in the thermal infrared (4–100 µm.) (Figure from Valley, 1965)


Speleothems actually form because of water. Rainwater seeps through cracks in the rock. As it passes through organic material, it picks up carbon dioxide gas, creating carbonic acid. This weak acid passes through joints and cracks in limestone. The mineral calcite is dissolved from the limestone rock in which a cave is formed. When this water that now holds the dissolved rock is exposed to the air in the cave, it releases the carbon dioxide gas, much like when a bottle of soda is opened. As the carbon dioxide is released, calcite is precipitated (redeposited) on cave walls, ceilings and floors. As the redeposited minerals build up after countless water drops, a stalactite is formed. If the water that drops to the floor of the cave still has some dissolved calcite in it, it can deposit more dissolved calcite there, forming a stalagmite. 041b061a72


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